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58-TPO58-真题-阅读-TPO 58 Reading 3

 
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发表于 2017-6-30 01:13:31 | 显示全部楼层
Population Revolution in Eighteenth-Century Europe
   Paragraph 1
       In late seventeenth-century Europe, the evolution in population followed by stabilization changed to population revolution. ■ Increasing contacts with the Americas brought more sophisticated knowledge of the advantages of new foods, particularly the potato. ■ Originally a cool-weather mountain crop in the Americas, potatoes did well in the Pyrenees, Alps, and Scottish Highlands. ■ They also grew well in the long, damp springtime of the northwest European plain. ■ Whatever hesitancy peasants may have felt about eating potatoes quickly passed when famine threatened; after all, people who in famines desperately consumed grass, weeds, and the bark of trees hardly would have hesitated to eat a potato. By the later eighteenth and the nineteenth century, American foods had become the principal foodstuffs of many rural folk. Various agricultural publicists promoted adoption of these foods, and peasants found that potatoes could allow subsistence on smaller plots of land. Fried potatoes soon began to be sold on the streets of Paris in the 1680s the original French fries. Governments, eager to promote population growth as a source of military and economic strength, also backed the potato.

   Paragraph 2
        Along with new foods, some landowners began to introduce other innovations. The nutritional base for a population revolution combined regional changes with the use of American foods. Dutch and English farmers drained more swamps and so increased cultivable land. Agricultural reformers further promoted the use of crops such as the turnip that return valuable nitrogen to the soil. Improvements in available tools, such as growing use of the scythe instead of the sickle for harvesting, and better methods of raising livestock also spread. All this took shape from the late seventeenth century onward, building on earlier agricultural changes. At the same time, rates of epidemic disease declined, in part because of more effective government controls over the passage of people and animals along traditional plague routes from the Middle East. It was the change in foods that really counted, however.

   Paragraph 3
        These developments provided a framework for an unprecedented surge. In virtually every area of Europe, the population increased by 50 to 100 percent in the eighteenth century, with the greatest growth coming after 1750. The Hapsburg Empire grew from 20 million to 27 million people; Spain rose from 5 million to 10 million, and Prussia rose from 3 million to 6 million. Growth would continue throughout the nineteenth century. In Europe as a whole, population rose from 188 million in 1800 to 401 million in 1900. This was an upheaval of truly impressive proportions.

   Paragraph 4
        The population explosion resulted from a break in the traditional, if approximate, balance between births and deaths in European society. In England between 1700 and 1750, approximately 32.8 people were born annually for every 1,000 inhabitants, and 31.5 people died. Similarly, in Lombardy in the eighteenth century, 39 people were born and 37 people died for every 1,000 inhabitants. Clearly, a major alteration had to occur in either the birth or the mortality rate before the expansion of population could begin. In fact, both rates changed: families began to have more children, and a lower percentage of the population died each year. Lower infant death rates meant more people living to produce children of their own, though falling adult death rates also increased the number of older Europeans.

   Paragraph 5
        While historians continue to debate the precise balance of causes involved in these dramatic changes, basic outlines are clear. Better food and a reduction in the epidemic-disease cycle allowed more children to live to adulthood, which increased the population directly and also provided more parents for the next generation a double impact. Rapidly increasing populations provided a new labor force for manufacturing. In the eighteenth century, this mainly involved hundreds of thousands of people, mostly rural, producing thread, cloth, and other products for market sale. This manufacturing expansion helped sustain the growing population, but it could also encourage a higher birth rate. Some people, able to earn money by their late teens, began to produce children earlier; the rate of illegitimate births went up. Others realized that having an extra child or two might help the family economy by providing additional worker-assistants. While death-rate decline was the most important source of Europe's population explosion, various changes on the birth rate side, though quite short-lived, pushed the population up as well.

1.Paragraph 1 suggests that the European population before the late seventeenth century had been
growing slowly and then not at all
changing in distribution but not in the overall number of people
decreasing at a small but stable rate
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发表于 2017-8-8 18:59:03 | 显示全部楼层
看到楼主的资料,我就有了信心
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发表于 2017-8-8 19:12:38 | 显示全部楼层
我只是来下资料的。
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发表于 2017-8-8 19:29:15 | 显示全部楼层
我不是随便的人,随便起来不是人,随便下载资料
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发表于 2017-8-22 18:11:37 | 显示全部楼层
谢谢!希望下载这些资料可以让我不上培训班,自学成功。
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发表于 2017-8-30 16:09:28 | 显示全部楼层
楼主,我现在有些冷静下来了,我觉得应该做一些实际的事情。那就是——下载资料打包带走!!!
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发表于 2017-9-7 17:20:21 | 显示全部楼层
楼主,我现在有些冷静下来了,我觉得应该做一些实际的事情。我决定先把你的名字纪录下来。让子孙后代牢记于心,广为传诵。让他们知道什么是中国的传统美德,什么是炎黄子孙的精神,什么是黄河水,什么是长江魂。什么是五千年的文明史.什么是真正的好帖,好帖就要把资料下载保存。
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发表于 2017-9-15 15:54:30 | 显示全部楼层
第一次评论啊,好紧张啊,该怎么说啊,打多少字才显的有文采啊,写的这么深奥别人会不会看不懂啊,怎样才能写出我博士后的水平呢,半年写了这么多会不会太快啊,好激动啊,还是先去下载资料吧!
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发表于 2017-10-18 00:07:12 | 显示全部楼层
58-TPO58-真题-阅读-TPO 58 Reading 3
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发表于 2017-12-12 17:26:19 | 显示全部楼层
G00000000000000000000000000D
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