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NT-0711 -阅读-NT-0711 Reading 2

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发表于 2017-7-1 02:52:22 | 显示全部楼层
0711-2

真题还原:
Motor Development in Children
Control over one's motor behavior ranks among the infant's greatest achievements. Psychologists who study the acquisition of motor skills in children find it useful to distinguish between gross motor development, that is, motor skills which help children to get around in their environment such as crawling and walking, and fine motor development, which refers to smaller movement sequences like reaching and grasping.

The development of motor skills has implications beyond simply learning how to perform new actions: motor skills can have profound effects on other areas of development. For example, researchers have shown that infants with locomotor experience (experience moving around their environment) were less likely to make errors while searching for hidden objects. The ability to initiate movement around one's environment stimulates the development of , making hidden object tasks easier to solve. Psychology professor Carolyn Rovee-Collier argues that the onset of independent locomotion at around nine months old marks an important transition in memory development. Children who can move about the environment develop an understanding of locations such as here and there. Because infant memory is initially highly dependent on context that is, the similarity between the situation where information is encoded (stored in memory) and where it is recalled, infants who have experience moving about the environment and who learn to spatially encode information become less dependent on context for successful recall. These examples show that gross motor development has implications beyond the immediately apparent benefits of crawling and walking.

Renowned psychologist Jean Piaget argued that the development of reaching and grasping was a key aspect of development because it formed an important link between biological adaptation and intellectual adaptation. Reaching and grasping are voluntary actions under the infant's control, and as such, they open up exciting new possibilities in their ability to explore the environment. An infant who reaches for and grasps an object so as to explore it pushes his development forward as he engages in processes such as adapting his grip to the size and shape of the object. Piaget argued that these early processes drive cognitive development in the first two years of an infant's life.

The development of reaching begins early on in life. Newborn infants seated in an upright position will swipe and reach towards an object placed in front of them, a behavior labeled "prereaching." ■ These poorly coordinated behaviors start to decline around two months of age and are replaced by "directed reaching" which begins at about three months of age. ■At this time reaching becomes more coordinated and efficient, and improves in accuracy. ■ According to research conducted by Clifton et al., the infant's reaching does not depend simply on the guidance of the hand and arm by the visual system but is controlled by proprioception, the sensation of movement and location based on the stimulation arising from bodily sources such as muscle contractions. ■By about nine months old, infants can adjust their reaching to take into account a moving object. However, nine month olds are far from expert reachers. A good deal of skill must still develop.

Once infants begin reaching they also begin to grasp the objects that are the target of their reaches. The ulnar grasp is seen when infants first engage in directed reaching. The ulnar grasp is a primitive form of grasping in which the infant's fingers close against its palm. The fingers seem to act as a whole, requiring the use of the palm in order to hold an object. Shortly after this accomplishment, when infants can sit upright on their own, they can acquire the ability to transfer objects from hand to hand. Around the end of the first year, infants will have graduated to using the pincer grasp where they use their index finger and thumb in an opposable manner (placing them opposite each other), resulting in a more coordinated and finely tuned grip which allows for the exploration of very small objects or those objects which demand specific actions for their operation, such as the knobs on a stereo system which require turning to the left or right to adjust volume.

1. According to paragraph 1, the distinction between gross motor development and fine motor development is based primarily on
○ how much control the infant has over the motor skills
○ when the motor skills are developed
○ the size of the movement sequences involved
○ the usefulness of the movement sequences involved
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发表于 2017-8-8 19:02:21 | 显示全部楼层
我轻轻地来的,正如我轻轻地走,挥一挥衣袖,带走一批资料
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发表于 2017-8-8 19:25:21 | 显示全部楼层
卧槽,我居然看完了,我竟然下载了。
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发表于 2017-8-9 09:35:43 | 显示全部楼层
人生有风险,回帖需谨慎,下载资料走人。
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发表于 2017-8-15 17:35:43 | 显示全部楼层
你造么,资料下载,根本停不下来
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发表于 2017-8-15 17:40:20 | 显示全部楼层
真的是不错的资料!马住,有需要再来下载
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发表于 2017-8-22 18:06:38 | 显示全部楼层
mark之,复习加油,不过要是能一键下载就好了
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发表于 2017-8-30 16:00:24 | 显示全部楼层
热点帖子是人人都关注的,回复也多。可是别忘了,那些冷门帖子它们可也是作者字字心血的凝聚。给他们一个关注的回复,远比你给热点帖子的数个回复都更能使别人铭记住你的热情。更何况,还有这么多资料可以下载呢!
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发表于 2017-9-7 17:23:18 | 显示全部楼层
楼主,你是论坛的的希望啊,你要担起八卦兴旺之大任啊!我一定会追随你左右,我坚定此贴必然会起到抛砖引玉的作用,更坚信在我的有生之年必然会有更多像楼主一样的来发表如此经典的帖子,今夜梦中,我会笑容灿烂,因为,我终于知道了此番人世,得此一贴,无憾矣!我会保存好楼主的每一分资料。
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发表于 2017-9-15 15:57:05 | 显示全部楼层
向楼主学习!向楼主致敬!楼主不是别人,楼主就是楼主!支持楼主,下载资料!!!
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