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[真题回忆] 托福独家真题-阅读-TPO-41 Reading 3_final

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发表于 2017-7-31 16:20:04 | 显示全部楼层
Trade and Early State Formation

Bartering was a basic trade mechanism for many thousands of years; often sporadic and usually based on notions of reciprocity, it involved the mutual exchange of commodities or objects between individuals or groups. Redistribution of these goods through society lay in the hands of chiefs, religious leaders, or kin groups. Such redistribution was a basic element in chiefdoms. The change from redistribution to formal trade—often based on regulated commerce that perhaps involved fixed prices and even currency—was closely tied to growing political and social complexity and hence to the development of the state in the ancient world.

In the 1970s, a number of archaeologists gave trade a primary role in the rise of ancient states. British archaeologist Colin Renfrew attributed the dramatic flowering of the Minoan civilization on Crete and through the Aegean to intensified trading contacts and to the impact of olive and vine cultivation on local communities. As agricultural economies became more diversified and local food supplies could be purchased both locally and over longer distances, a far-reaching economic interdependence resulted. Eventually, this led to redistribution systems for luxuries and basic commodities, systems that were organized and controlled by Minoan rulers from their palaces. As time went on, the self-sufficiency of communities was replaced by mutual dependence. Interest in long-distance trade brought about some cultural homogeneity from trade and gift exchange, and perhaps even led to piracy. Thus, intensified trade and interaction, and the flowering of specialist crafts, in a complex process of positive feedback, led to much more complex societies based on palaces, which were the economic hubs of a new Minoan civilization.



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发表于 2017-8-22 18:06:48 | 显示全部楼层
太棒了,就想要这些资料,赞!!!果断下载,感谢分享
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发表于 2017-8-30 16:10:40 | 显示全部楼层
看见LZ的神贴,本神心里不由一沉,脸上布满了惊骇,略微皱了皱眉,沉吟了一会,缓缓抬起了头,表情淡漠,又面露凝重之色,无奈地摇了摇头,微微地叹了口气,嘴角一抽,又倒吸一口凉气,旋即脸色一变,冷喝一声,身形一动,脸上浮现一抹狰狞,娇躯一颤,黛眉微蹙,贝齿轻咬红唇,玉手托着香腮,随即玉足轻抬,莲步微移,右手一翻,玄黑鼠标在手中逐渐形成,手指轻抚键盘,霎时天地能量急速暴掠而来,本神面露不屑之色,嘴角拉起一个细微的弧度,如老僧坐定般,浩瀚的气息顿时蔓延开来,眼中浮现一抹火热,随后心神一动,屈指轻弹鼠标,“赶紧下载资料”六个金光闪闪的大字,缓缓浮现
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发表于 2017-9-7 17:29:32 | 显示全部楼层
“如果顶帖是一种错,那麽我宁愿一错再错,”为了如此的好贴可以继续的流传下去,为了更多的人可以继续欣赏这份精彩,同志们,“这样的好贴我们要顶,有困难要顶,没有困难创造困难也要顶,”,让我们为可以在如此的好贴下面留上自己的名字而感到骄傲吧,让我们为我们亲手创造的精彩而感到自豪吧。最后不要忘了下载资料哦。
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发表于 2017-9-15 15:59:09 | 显示全部楼层
在遇到你之前,我对人世间是否有真正的圣人是怀疑的;而现在,我终于相信了,你的资料简直神了,下载下载,火速下载!
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