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[托福阅读资料] 托福资料之托福阅读考古类真题

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发表于 2017-8-23 13:33:25 | 显示全部楼层
  摘要:小编又带来托福资料了,今天给大家带来的是托福资料之托福阅读考古类真题,文章里面是介绍关于考古方面的问题,大家可以感受一下考古类文章的套路,然后后面有问题提问,并且后面附有答案哦,希望可以帮助大家,下面我们就一起来看看吧。

  小编又带来托福资料了,今天给大家带来的是托福资料之托福阅读考古类真题,文章里面是介绍关于考古方面的问题,大家可以感受一下考古类文章的套路,然后后面有问题提问,并且后面附有答案哦,希望可以帮助大家,下面我们就一起来看看吧。

Title:Environmental Impact of the Anasazi
A major question in the archaeology of  the southwestern region of the United States is why so many impressive settlements, and  even entire regions, were abandoned in  prehistoric times. Archaeologist Tim Kohler has suggested that the nature of human-environmental interaction was an important reason in the case of the Anasazi people. The actual case study  that Kohler relies on is from the Dolores River basin of southwest  Colorado, where the Anasazi seem to have moved in about A.D. 600. Over the  following couple of centuries, the population increased, and they aggregated (or gathered)  into villages, but by about A.D. 900 the area began to be abandoned. Other  archaeologists have identified the immediate cause of this abandonment to be a series  of short growing seasons that would  have put pressure on corn production at that high an  altitude. Kohler, however, assets that a growing population  led to human-environmental  interactions that caused people to live in villages, intensify agrarian  food production, deforest the region, deplete the local soils, and ultimately abandon the area.
  
  
Kohler uses several kinds of evidence to  show that human effects, not solely climatic  factors, were important factors in the abandonment of settlements. One key indicator  of change in the environment surrounding these prehistoric settlements is the wood that was used there.  Archaeological study of wood charcoal found  in hearths dating to the various  episodes of occupation indicated that the species use changed  in a patterned way. Over time there  was a decline in the use of juniper and  pinon (native, slow-growing species of trees)  and an increase in woody shrubs  and fast-growing cottonwood. The species of wood used in the  construction of buildings also  changed. Fewer pinon were being used, and those that were used seem to be from  increasingly old trees,  while juniper continued to be from  young trees. The implication  is that the forest that did remain  was changing to relatively more junipers, a tree that is more fire resistant, better  able to reproduce in open settings, and less desirable for construction than pinon. Kohler  argues that pinon  was disappearing from the locale  of settlements and that this  put an additional nutritional strain on the population, which used nuts  from the tree  as well as its wood.  The relative proportion of different species of animals  hunted by people in the region also changed progressively. A final source of evidence was the seeds found  in the archaeological deposits,  which had blown or been brought to the settlement. As time went on, there  was a substantial increase in seeds  from pioneer plants, attesting both to agricultural intensification and to an  increasingly disturbed local environment.
  
  
This evidence has convinced Kohler of  the importance of human impact in degrading  the local environment. His interpretation of the situation is that by about A.D. 840, people had aggregated into villages in favorable settings because of their  competitive organizational advantages over smaller units  in the face of growing  population and depletion of  local wild resources. Hence, the very nature of the initial slash-and-burn agriculture encouraged a  further dependence on agriculture and the aggregation of people into  denser settlements. However, there  are costs to aggregation, such as the  increasing distance to usable fields, the heavier pressure on local soils,  and the accompanying increase in agricultural risk. The Anasazi  responded to this by further intensification, such as water-control  mechanisms, to feed the increasing population.  Such a trajectory is fraught with risks, but it is also pushed forward by  advantages it bestows on its participants who organize and cooperate. Advantages might include sharing  food across groups in a village, investment in facilities to improve the processing and storage  of food, and cooperative labor  pools and social  groupings larger than villages, which would enable organized  long-distance hunts and participation in trading networks.  Larger and larger villages became possible, but this also made the system vulnerable  to collapse. A reliance on the management of resources through cooperative action reduced  their flexibility of action, so that when  poor seasons occurred, people were seriously hurt. Thus an expectable  aberration in the climatic regime  may have been enough to cause the collapse of the village system in the Dolores area.
  
  
Paragraph 1
  
A major question in the archaeology of  the southwestern region of the United States is why so many impressive settlements, and  even entire regions, were abandoned in  prehistoric times. Archaeologist Tim Kohler has suggested that the nature of human-environmental interaction was an important reason in the case of the Anasazi people. The actual case study  that Kohler relies on is from the Dolores River basin of southwest  Colorado, where the Anasazi seem to have moved in about A.D. 600. Over the  following couple of centuries, the population increased, and they aggregated (or gathered)  into villages, but by about A.D. 900 the area began to be abandoned. Other  archaeologists have identified the immediate cause of this abandonment to be a series  of short growing seasons that would  have put pressure on corn production at that high an  altitude. Kohler, however, assets that a growing population  led to human-environmental  interactions that caused people to live in villages, intensify agrarian food  production, deforest the region, deplete the local soils, and ultimately abandon the area.
1.       The  word “ultimately” in the passage is  closet in meaning to
  
¡  quietly
  
¡  gradually
  
¡  eventually
  
¡  simply

  
2.       According to paragraph 1, other archaeologists differ from Tim  Kohler in giving which of the following as the  reason for the abandonment of settlements by  the Anasazi?
  
¡  The nature of human interaction with the environment
  
¡ A  large increase in population over a short period of time
  
¡ The way in which people gathered together in villages
  
¡ A  limited production of corn due to one short growing  season after another Paragraph 1 is marked with an  arrow [→]

  
3.       According to paragraph  1, Kohler views all of the following as changes that occurred as a  result of increased population growth EXCEPT
  
¡ the  organizationof the people into villages
  
¡ the  improvement of local soils
  
¡ increased  food production
  
¡  a  decrease in the number of trees in the area
  
Paragraph 1 is marked with an arrow [→]
  
Paragraph 2
  
Kohler uses several kinds of evidence to  show that human effects, not solely climatic  factors, were important factors in the abandonment of settlements. One key indicator  of change in the environment surrounding these prehistoric settlements is the wood that was used there.  Archaeological study of wood charcoal found  in hearths dating to the various  episodes of occupation indicated that the species use changed  in a patterned way. Over time there  was a decline in the use of juniper and  pinon (native, slow-growing species of trees)  and an increase in woody shrubs  and fast-growing cottonwood. The species of wood used in the  construction of buildings also  changed. Fewer pinon were being used, and those that were used seem to be from  increasingly old trees,  while juniper continued to be from  young trees. The implication  is that the forest that did remain  was changing to relatively more junipers, a tree that is more  fire resistant, better able to reproduce in open settings, and less desirable for construction than pinon. Kohler  argues that pinon  was disappearing from the locale  of settlements and that this  put an additional nutritional strain on the population, which used nuts  from the tree  as well as its wood.  The relative proportion of different species of animals  hunted by people in the region also changed progressively. A final source of evidence was the seeds found  in the archaeological deposits,  which had blown or been brought to the settlement. As time went on, there  was a substantial increase in seeds from  pioneer plants, attesting both to agricultural  intensification and to an increasingly disturbed local environment.
  
4.       The  word “substantial” in the passage is  closet in meaning to
  
¡  gradual
  
¡  appropriate
  
¡  apparent
  
¡  significant
  
5.       All of the following are mentioned in paragraph 2 as changes  over time in the  pattern of wood use in prehistoric settlements EXCEPT:
  
¡  Cottonwood was increasingly used in hearths.
  
¡  Fewer pinon trees were used in building construction.
  
¡  Juniper wood was increasingly used in hearths.
  
¡ The pinon wood used  in construction came  increasingly from older  trees.
  
Paragraph  2 is marked with an arrow [→]
  
6.       It can be inferred from paragraph 2 that juniper
  
¡  is less valuable nutritionally than  pinon is
  
¡  is easily destroyed by fire
  
¡  produces fewer seeds per plant than pinon does
  
¡  reproduces  easily in the presence of pinon
  
Paragraph 2 is marked with an arrow [→]

  
7.       In paragraph 2, why does  the author compare  the use of juniper with  pinon in the construction of buildings?
  
¡  To prove  that juniper is more suitable for building construction than pinon is
  
¡ To indicate that  the choice of wood for building construction depended on the age of the tree species
  
¡  To support  the claim that wood use changed over time in a patterned way
  
¡ To identify the features  of juniper that made the Anasazi use it more often than pinon for constructing  buildings

  
Paragraph 2 is marked with an arrow [→]
  
Paragraph 3
  
This evidence has convinced Kohler of  the importance of human impact in degrading  the local environment. His interpretation of the situation is that by about A.D. 840, people had aggregated into villages in favorable settings because of their  competitive organizational advantages over smaller units  in the face of growing  population and depletion of  local wild resources. Hence, the very nature of the initial slash-and-burn agriculture encouraged a further dependence on agriculture  and the aggregation of people into denser settlements. However,  there are costs to aggregation, such as the increasing distance to usable fields, the heavier pressure  on local soils, and the accompanying increase in agricultural  risk. The Anasazi responded to this by further intensification, such as water-control  mechanisms, to feed the increasing population.  Such a trajectory is fraught with risks, but it is also pushed forward by  advantages it bestows on its participants who organize and cooperate. Advantages might include sharing  food across groups in a village, investment in facilities to improve the processing and storage  of food, and cooperative labor  pools and social  groupings larger than villages, which would enable organized  long-distance hunts and participation in trading networks.  Larger and larger villages became possible, but this also made the system  vulnerable to collapse. A reliance on  the management of resources through cooperative action  reduced their flexibility of action, so that  when poor seasons occurred, people were seriously hurt. Thus an  expectable aberration in the  climatic   regime  may  have   been  enough  to   cause  the  collapse   of  the village system in  the Dolores area.

  
8.       The  word “denser” in the passage is  closet in meaning to
  
¡  more  distant
  
¡  more  crowded
  
¡  newer
  
¡  more  permanent

  
9.       The  word “reliance” in the passage is  closet in meaning to
  
¡  dependence
  
¡  disagreement
  
¡  policy
  
¡  limit

  
10.   According to paragraph 3, whichof the following is Kohler’s explanation of the fact that  people came together to form villages?
  
¡ Combining  the population into large villages reduced the negative environmental effects of small social groups.
  
¡ As  the populations increased, the size of  the small social units expanded so much  that by A.D. 840 they had grown together forming villages.
  
¡ Villages  provided the efficient social organization needed to deal with population growth and reduced resources.
  
¡ Villages formed  on the land  cleared by the slash and  burn agriculture practiced by small social groups.
  
Paragraph 3 is marked with an  arrow [→]
  
  
11.   According to paragraph  3, why did the apparent advantages of larger  settlements in fact lead to the failure of the Anasazi village system?
  
¡ The  large size of the settlements made improving processing and storage  of necessary food difficult.
  
¡  The trading networks could no longer  support the growing  needs of large  villages.
  
¡ The  long-distance hunts that had to be organized took too many resources away from the labor pool.
  
¡ The  management system the people  practiced made it difficult to deal  appropriately with periods of bad harvests.
  
Paragraph 3 is marked with an  arrow [→]

  
12.   According to paragraph 3, which of the following was a disadvantage of aggregation?
  
¡  People lived farther from the fields in  which they worked.
  
¡  Facilities for food processing and food storage  became inadequate.
  
¡ Cooperation  between the various groups in the management of labor pools became difficult to maintain.
  
¡  Networks set up to facilitate trade between the larger villages  broke down over  time.
  
Paragraph 3 is marked with an  arrow [→]

  
Paragraph 2
  
Kohler uses several kinds of evidence to  show that human effects, not solely climatic  factors, were important factors in the abandonment of settlements. One key indicator  of change in the environment surrounding these prehistoric settlements is the wood that was used there.  Archaeological study of wood charcoal found  in hearths dating to the various  episodes of occupation indicated that the species use changed  in a patterned way. Over time there  was a decline in the use of juniper and  pinon (native, slow-growing species of trees)  and an increase in woody shrubs  and fast-growing cottonwood. The species of wood used in the  construction of buildings also  changed. Fewer pinon were being used, and those that were used seem to be from  increasingly old trees,  while juniper continued to be from  young trees. The implication  is that the forest that did remain  was changing to relatively more junipers, a tree that is more  fire resistant, better able to reproduce in open settings, and less desirable for construction than pinon. Kohler  argues that pinon  was disappearing from the locale  of settlements and that this  put an additional nutritional strain on the population, which used  nuts from the  tree as well  as its wood.  ■The relative proportion of different species of  animals hunted by people in the region also changed progressively. ■A final source of evidence was the  seeds found in the archaeological  deposits, which had blown or been brought to the settlement. ■As time went on, there was a substantial increase in seeds from pioneer  plants, attesting both  to agricultural intensification and to an increasingly disturbed local environment.■
  
13.   Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the  following sentence could be added to the passage.
  
Earlier, they had pursued  animals native to woodlands such as deer and  rabbit and later, those more at home in open or  disturbed environments such as antelope and jackrabbit.
  
Where would the sentence best fit?  Click on a square [■] to add the sentence to  the  passage.

  
14.  Directions:  An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer  choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some answer choices  do not belong in the  summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in  the passage. This question is worth 2 points.
  
Drag your choices  to the spaces  where they belong.  To review the passage, click on View Text.
  
                  
            
Archaeologist       Time       Kohler       has       attempted       to  explain       why  villages       and  areas       in  the southwestern part of the United States were abandoned      around A.D. 900.
      
      
      
   
Answer choices
  
¡  Kohler attributes the immediate  cause of the abandonment to problems with corn production at a high altitude  during short growing seasons.

¡  Kohler maintains that the  Anasazi’s transition to living together in villages was a key factor in the  process of the degradation of the environment.
  
¡  The development of intensive  agricultural methods depleted the soil and resource management strategies  made it difficult to cope with poor growing seasons.
  
¡  Kohler’s research indicates that  in addition to agriculture, the Anasazi lived on the pinon nuts they grew and  the animals they hunted in the area.
  
¡  Increases in seeds from pioneer  plants and systematic changes in the animals hunted and the trees used for  construction and fuel are evidence of environmental degradation.

¡  The dependence of the Anasazi on  food supplies from nearby villages with better systems of water control and  food storage facilities resulted in the Anasazi abandoning the larger  villages.

以上就是小编为大家带来的托福阅读考古类真题了,想要了解答案的回帖下载哦~~
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