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[托福阅读资料] 托福资料之托福阅读考古类真题

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发表于 2017-8-23 13:40:49 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 昨天的日记 于 2017-8-23 13:49 编辑

   摘要:小编又带来托福资料了,今天给大家带来的是托福资料之托福阅读考古类真题,文章里面是介绍关于考古方面的问题,大家可以感受一下考古类文章的套路,然后后面有问题提问,并且后面附有答案哦,希望可以帮助大家,下面我们就一起来看看吧。

  小编又带来托福资料了,今天给大家带来的是托福资料之托福阅读考古类真题,文章里面是介绍关于考古方面的问题,大家可以感受一下考古类文章的套路,然后后面有问题提问,并且后面附有答案哦,希望可以帮助大家,下面我们就一起来看看吧。
  
Title:The Chaco Phenomenon
A  truly remarkable transformation in settlement patterns occurred in the San  Juan basin in northwestern New Mexico in the late tenth and early eleventh  centuries, with small household  farmsteads giving way to aggregated communities centered on communal masonry buildings that are  now called “great houses.” These  structures are found throughout the basin but are concentrated in Chaco Canyon, where several examples  contained hundreds of rooms and reached four stories in height. The largest great  house is Pueblo  Bonito, with over 600 rooms covering two acres. The entire episode  of great house construction in Chaco, the Bonito phase (A.D. 900-1140), was obviously a time of immense cooperative effort. At least 200,000  wooden beams averaging 5  meters long and 20 centimeters in diameter were brought to the canyon  from distances between  40 and 100 kilometers away to build a dozen great houses, signifying a huge labor investment and a complex  production process. The bulk of construction took place in the  eleventh century, but by A.D. 1140  it had ceased abruptly, after which there was a rapid decline  in use of the great  houses and apparent abandonment of the canyon in the thirteenth century.

  
For  more than a century archaeologists have struggled to understand the circumstances surrounding the rise and collapse of Chacoan society—dubbed the  Chaco Phenomenon. In particular, research has focused on determining why such an apparently inhospitable place as Chaco, which today is extremely arid and has very short growing seasons, should have favored the concentration of labor that must have been required for such massive construction projects over brief periods  of time. Until  the 1970s, it was widely  assumed that Chaco  had been a forested oasis that attracted farmers who initially  flourished but eventually fell victim to their own success and  exuberance, as they denuded the canyon of  trees and vegetation to build large great houses.  In the 1980s this reconstruction was largely dismissed in response to evidence that  there had never been a forest in Chaco, and that canyon  soils had poor agricultural potential. As scientific  interpretations about Chaco changed, the focus of explanatory models changed  from the attractiveness of the canyon  for farmers to the position of the  canyon within a regional network of dispersed agricultural communities.

  
The adoption of a regional perspective in explaining the Chaco Phenomenon was based in part on the discovery of formal trails  connecting many of the great houses in Chaco, as well as linking the canyon to smaller great houses  located throughout the San Juan basin, the latter are referred to as  Chaco “outliers.” These trails are densest around  the concentration of great houses  in the center, and the canyon itself is roughly  at the center of the basin. Consequently, the canyon occupies the geographical and social  center of the network formed by the connecting trails. The current  consensus view is that religion provides the fundamental explanation for this centrifugal pattern.

  
Archaeologists now  describe Chaco during  the Bonito phase  as a location of high  devotional expression and  the pilgrimage center of a sacred landscape. These descriptions emphasize aspects of the archaeological record presumed to be associated  with ritual activity, including  caches of turquoise beads and pendants, unusual  ceramic vessels and wooden objects, several rooms with multiple human burials, and especially the  large number of kivas (multipurpose rooms used for religious, political, and  social functions) found in great houses. Most of these indicators occur only  at Pueblo Bonito, but archaeologists generally assume that all the great  houses had a similar ritual function. In fact, some scholars have suggested  that the great houses were temples rather than residences.
  
However, new geological field studies in  Chaco have produced results that  may require a significant reassessment of the assumption that the canyon  was not a favorable agricultural setting. It appears that during the first half of the eleventh century, during  the extraordinary boom in construction, a large volume of  water and suspended sediment flowed into the  canyon. A large  natural lake may have existed  at the western end of Chaco,  near the biggest  concentration of great houses. The presence of large quantities of water and, equally important, a source of sediment  that replenished agricultural fields, presumably made the canyon an extremely attractive place  for newly arriving people from the  northern San Juan  River basin.
  
Paragraph 1
A  truly remarkable transformation in settlement patterns occurred in the San  Juan basin in northwestern New Mexico in the late tenth and early eleventh  centuries, with small household  farmsteads giving way to aggregated communities centered on communal masonry buildings that are  now called “great houses.” These  structures are found throughout the basin but are concentrated in Chaco Canyon, where several examples  contained hundreds of rooms and reached four stories in height. The largest great  house is Pueblo  Bonito, with over 600 rooms covering two acres. The entire episode  of great house construction in Chaco, the Bonito phase (A.D. 900-1140), was obviously a time of immense cooperative effort. At least 200,000  wooden beams averaging 5  meters long and 20 centimeters in diameter were brought to the canyon  from distances between  40 and 100 kilometers away to build a dozen great houses, signifying a huge labor investment and a complex  production process. The bulk of construction took place in the  eleventh century, but by A.D. 1140  it had ceased abruptly, after which  there was a rapid decline in use of the  great houses and apparent abandonment of the canyon  in the thirteenth century.

  
1.       The word “signifying”  in the passage is closet in meaning to
¡   creating
  
¡   indicating
  
¡   initiating
  
¡   requiring
  
2.       The word “ceased”  in the passage is closet in meaning to
  
¡   slow down
  
¡   accelerated
  
¡   stopped
  
¡   changed in  style
  
3.       According to paragraph 1, all of the following provide evidence that the Bonito  phase was a time of immense cooperative effort EXCEPT
  
¡   the large amounts of material needed
  
¡   the size of the Pueblo Bonito complex
  
¡   the unusual materials used in construction
  
¡   the distance the materials needed to be transported

  
Paragraph 2
For  more than a century archaeologists have struggled to understand the circumstances surrounding the rise and collapse of Chacoan society—dubbed the  Chaco Phenomenon. In  particular, research has focused on determining why such an apparently inhospitable place as Chaco, which  today is extremely arid and has very short growing seasons,  should have favored the concentration of labor that must have been required for such massive construction projects over brief periods of time. Until the 1970s, it was widely  assumed that Chaco  had been a forested oasis that attracted farmers who initially  flourished but eventually fell victim to their own success and  exuberance, as they denuded the canyon of  trees and vegetation to build large great houses.  In the 1980s this reconstruction was largely dismissed in response to evidence that  there had never been a forest in Chaco, and that canyon soils had poor agricultural potential. As scientific  interpretations about Chaco changed, the focus of explanatory models changed  from the attractiveness of the canyon for  farmers to the position of the canyon within a regional network of  dispersed agricultural communities.

4.       Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
  
¡  Researchers have tried to establish why an area as dry as Chaco was the site of such large construction efforts.
  
¡  Researchers  have tried to establish whether the concentration of massive construction projects in a brief period  of time made Chaco the dry area that it is  today.
  
¡  Researchers have established that Chaco’s brief growing season required a  concentration of labor to produce  large quantities of food in a short period of time.
  
¡  Researchers  have established that the hot, dry climate of Chaco forced workers to complete construction  on large buildings in short periods of time.
  
5.        According to paragraph 2, before  1970, scholars believed that Chacoan society  collapsed because
  
¡  Chaco  never had the forests that were needed for  the development of a stable agricultural  economy.
  
¡  farmers used  up the natural resources in Chaco  that had originally allowed the society to succeed.
  
¡  Chaco suffered a long-term drought  that prevented farmers from growing enough  food.
  
¡   laborers left Chaco  to find other  work after they  finished building the  great houses there.
  
6.       It can be inferred from paragraph 2 that the pre-1970s theory  about the Chaco  Phenomenon
  
¡   Was based on the widespread farm and tool  remains found by archaeologists on the site.
  
¡   was largely reinforced by findings in the 1980s.
  
¡   was not supported by substantial evidence.
  
¡   was so strong that it went unchallenged for  many decades.

  
7.       The word “dispersed”  in the passage is closet in meaning to
  
¡   connected
  
¡   scattered
  
¡   stable
  
¡   developed

  
8.        According to paragraph 2,  why did scientists change their view about the cause of the collapse of Chacoan society?
  
¡  They  found evidence that Chaco had always lacked trees and good soil.
  
¡   They discovered that Chaco Canyon was much  drier than they had previously believed.
  
¡  They learned that the population was not large  enough to supply  the laborers needed  to build the great houses.
  
¡  They  found evidence that the farming economy was excessively concentrated in the central canyon.

Paragraph 3
The adoption of a regional perspective in explaining the Chaco Phenomenon was based in part on the discovery of formal trails  connecting many of the great houses in Chaco, as well as linking the canyon to smaller great houses  located throughout the San Juan basin, the latter are referred to as  Chaco “outliers.” These trails are densest around  the concentration of great houses  in the center, and the canyon itself is roughly  at the center of the basin. Consequently, the canyon occupies the geographical and social  center of the network formed by the connecting trails. The current  consensus view is that religion provides the fundamental explanation for this centrifugal pattern.

Paragraph 4
Archaeologists now  describe Chaco during  the Bonito phase  as a location of high  devotional expression and  the pilgrimage center of a sacred landscape. These descriptions emphasize aspects of the archaeological record presumed to be associated  with ritual activity, including  caches of turquoise beads and pendants, unusual  ceramic vessels and wooden objects, several rooms with multiple human burials, and  especially the large  number of kivas  (multipurpose rooms used  for religious, political, and social functions) found in great  houses. Most of these indicators occur only at Pueblo Bonito,  but archaeologists generally assume that all the great houses had a  similar ritual function. In fact,  some scholars have suggested that the great  houses were temples rather than residences.
  
9.        According to paragraphs 3 and 4, which of the following best describes how archaeologists  arrived at their current view of the nature of Chaco during the Bonito phase?
  
¡  They discovered a large number  of kivas, which  probably served as temporary houses  for pilgrims on their way to the main temple.
  
¡  They found  a series of paths leading  to the outliers, which seem to have been centers of trade for makers of jewelry and other products.
  
¡  They  found turquoise beads and pendants and other valuable objects, leading to the theory  that the great houses were wealthy  residences.
  
¡  They  discovered many objects and rooms associated with ritual activity, leading to the theory that Chaco was a religious center.

  
10.   The word “function”  in the passage is closet in meaning to
  
¡   center
  
¡   practice
  
¡   design
  
¡   purpose

  
Paragraph 5
  
However, new geological field studies in  Chaco have produced results that  may require a significant reassessment of the assumption that the canyon  was not a favorable agricultural setting. It appears that  during the first  half of the eleventh century, during  the extraordinary boom in construction, a large volume of  water and suspended sediment flowed into the  canyon. A large natural lake may have existed at the western end of Chaco,  near the biggest  concentration of great houses. The presence of large quantities of water and, equally important, a source of sediment  that replenished agricultural fields, presumably made the canyon an extremely attractive place  for newly arriving people from the  northern San Juan  River basin.

11.    According to paragraph 5,  what is the possible significance of new geological field studies in Chaco?
  
¡  They  indicate that during the construction boom the Chaco area probably did have  enough water and sediment to attract farmers to that area.
  
¡  They  could undermine the theory of Chaco as a religious center.
  
¡  They  show the presence of excessive amounts of water,  which may have led to the  departure of most of the people living there during the Bonito phase.
  
¡  They suggest  that the kind of sediment present in Chaco  in the eleventh century was not favorable  for agriculture.
  
12.    Why does the author state that A large natural  lake may have existed at the western end of  Chaco, near the biggest concentration of  great houses?
  
¡  To suggest that geological studies  are better than archaeological studies  in identifying the historical  uses of land
  
¡  To demonstrate that large construction projects  require a large population of workers
  
¡  To support the  idea that Chaco  may have been favorable to agriculture during  the Bonito phase
  
¡  To show that the Chacoan people preferred to  build their homes near water

  
Paragraph 3
  
■The adoption of a regional perspective  in explaining the Chaco Phenomenon was based in part on the discovery of formal trails connecting many of the  great houses in Chaco, as well as linking the canyon to smaller great houses  located throughout the San Juan basin, the latter are referred to as Chaco  “outliers.”  ■These trails are densest  around the concentration of great houses in the center, and the canyon itself  is roughly at the center of the basin. ■Consequently, the canyon occupies the  geographical and social center of the network formed by the connecting  trails. ■The current consensus view is that religion provides the fundamental  explanation for this centrifugal pattern.
  
13.   Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence  can be added to the passage.
  
Scholars have attempted to find a reason for  this web like arrangement of great houses around a central canyon.
  
Where  would the sentence best fit? Click  on a square [■] to add the sentence to the passage.
  
14.   Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary  of the passage is provided  below. Complete the summary  by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas  in the passage. Some answer choices do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage  or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.
  
Drag your  choices to the spaces where  they belong. To review  the passage, click  on View Text.
           
            
The population of the Chaco Canyon in New Mexico changed      significantly between      the tenth and      eleventh      centuries, as evidenced by      the remains of      its great houses.
      
      
      
      

  Answer Choices  
¡  Before  the 1970s, scholars believed that the  fail of Chacoan society was caused by farmers’  cutting down all the trees to build their  great houses.
  
¡  After discovering trails  connecting Chaco to surrounding  communities, scholars came to  believe that there were many forested oases  to support those communities.
  
¡  Archaeological evidence has led current  scholars to believe that Chaco was a  religious center during the Bonito  phase.
  
¡  Archaeological findings indicate  that Chaco Canyon was completely  abandoned by the end of the  thirteenth century.
  
¡  Researchers’  findings in the 1980s revealed that  Chaco Canyon had been a fertile agricultural area that caused the population near the center of the canyon to increase steadily  during the Bonito phase.
  
¡  Recent  geological studies indicating the  presence of water in Chaco Canyon in the  eleventh century may alter scholars’ belief  that the area was not favorable for farming.

以上就是小编为大家带来的托福阅读考古类真题了,想要了解答案的回帖下载哦~~
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发表于 2017-8-24 15:26:42 | 显示全部楼层
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发表于 2018-1-5 16:43:15 | 显示全部楼层
托福阅读真题 According to paragraph 4, compared with active lizards, the movements of sit-and-wait lizards are
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发表于 2018-7-2 18:08:11 | 显示全部楼层
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RE: 托福资料之托福阅读考古类真题 [修改]
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