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[综合资料] 托福tpo资料 全套下载资料

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发表于 2018-8-16 17:31:34 | 显示全部楼层
摘要:说到托福TPO,相信考生们并不陌生,那么什么是托福tpo呢?简单通俗的来说就是总结往年考试中的托福真题,为了方便考生们进行真题练习,小编为大家整理了托福tpo资料 全套下载,附有高清文本和音频帮助大家进行备考练习。
 托福tpo部分内容如下:
  【1】In Europe, before the introduction of the mechanical clock, people told time by sun(using, for example, shadow sticks or sun dials) and water clocks. Sun clocks worked, ofcourse, only on clear days; water clocks misbehaved when the temperature fell towardfreezing, to say nothing of long-run drift as the result of sedimentation and clogging. Boththese devices worked well in sunny climates; but in northern Europe the sun may be hidden byclouds for weeks at a time, while temperatures vary not only seasonally but from day to night.
  【2】Medieval Europe gave new importance to reliable time. The Catholic Church had its sevendaily prayers, one of which was at night, requiring an alarm arrangement to waken monksbefore dawn. And then the new cities and towns, squeezed by their walls, had to know andorder time in order to organize collective activity and ration space. They set a time to go tosleep. All this was compatible with older devices so long as there was only one authoritativetimekeeper; but with urban growth and the multiplication of time signals, discrepancy broughtdiscord and strife. Society needed a more dependable instrument of time measurement andfound it in the mechanical clock.
【3】We do not know who invented this machine, or where. It seems to have appeared in Italyand England (perhaps simultaneous invention) between 1275 and 1300. Once known, itspread rapidly, driving out water clocks but not solar dials, which were needed to check thenew machines against the timekeeper of last resort. These early versions were rudimentary,inaccurate, and prone to breakdown.
【4】Ironically, the new machine tended to undermine Catholic Church authority. Althoughchurch ritual had sustained an interest in timekeeping throughout the centuries of urbancollapse that followed the fall of Rome, church time was nature’s time. Day and night weredivided into the same number of parts, so that except at the equinoxes, days and night hourswere unequal; and then of course the length of these hours varied with the seasons. But themechanical clock kept equal hours, and this implied a new time reckoning. The Catholic Churchresisted, not coming over to the new hours for about a century. From the start, however, thetowns and cities took equal hours as their standard, and the public clocks installed in town hallsand market squares became the very symbol of a new, secular municipal authority. Everytown wanted one; conquerors seized them as especially precious spoils of war; tourists cameto see and hear these machines the way they made pilgrimages to sacred relics.
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发表于 2018-8-16 21:23:54 | 显示全部楼层
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发表于 2018-9-12 00:24:41 来自手机 | 显示全部楼层
今天刚开始复习的我要加油啊
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发表于 2019-2-12 15:39:22 | 显示全部楼层
good!!!!!
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发表于 2019-6-10 14:59:38 | 显示全部楼层
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发表于 2019-6-11 09:56:13 | 显示全部楼层
啊啊哈哈哈哈哈哈哈哈哈哈哈哈哈哈哈哈哈
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发表于 2019-6-11 21:28:51 | 显示全部楼层
感谢啊啊 啊啊啊 啊 啊
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发表于 2019-6-13 22:08:47 | 显示全部楼层
谢谢楼主
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