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正版资料:全套托福阅读真题tpo下载(原文+答案解析)

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发表于 2018-10-19 15:58:19 | 显示全部楼层
想要提高自己托福阅读成绩,首先要学对知识,要使用正版的tpo座模考,其次要勤加练习,才能掌握托福阅读的各种题型,楼主为大家整理了全套托福阅读真题tpo下载,包含了原文+答案解析。需要下载的小伙伴们,可下面回复下载哦!

TPO52托福阅读Passage2原文文本


Natufian Culture
In the archaeological record of the Natufian period, from about 12,500 to 10,200 years ago, in the part of the Middle East known as the Levant—roughly east of the Mediterranean and north of the Arabian Peninsula—we see clear evidence of agricultural origins. The stone tools of the Natufians included many sickle-shaped cutting blades that show a pattern of wear characteristic of cereal harvesting. Also, querns (hand mills) and other stone tools used for processing grain occur in abundance at Natufian sites, and many such tools show signs of long, intensive use. Along with the sickle blades are many grinding stones, primarily mortars and pestles of limestone or basalt. There is also evidence that these heavy grinding stones were transported over long distances, more than 30 kilometers in some cases, and this is not something known to have been done by people of preceding periods. Fishhooks and weights for sinking fishing nets attest to the growing importance of fish in the diet in some areas. Stone vessels indicate an increased need for containers, but there is no evidence of Natufian clay working or pottery. Studies of the teeth of Natufians also strongly suggest that these people specialized in collecting cereals and may have been cultivating them and in the process of domesticating them, but they were also still hunter-foragers who intensively hunted gazelle and deer in more lush areas and wild goats and equids in more arid zones.
The Natufians had a different settlement pattern from that of their predecessors. Some of their base camps were far larger (over 1,000 square meters) than any of those belonging to earlier periods, and they may have lived in some of these camps for half the year or even more. In some of the camps, people made foundations and other architectural elements out of limestone blocks. Trade in shell, obsidian, and other commodities seems to have been on the rise, and anthropologists suspect that the exchange of perishables (such as skins, foodstuffs) and salt was also on the increase. With the growing importance of wild cereals in the diet, salt probably became for the first time a near necessity: people who eat a lot of meat get many essential salts from this diet, but diets based on cereals can be deficient in salts. Salt was probably also important as a food preservative in early villages.
As always, there is more to a major cultural change than simply a shift in economics. The Natufians made (and presumably wore) beads and pendants in many materials, including gemstones and marine shells that had to be imported, and it is possible that this ornamentation actually reflects a growing sense of ethnic identity and perhaps some differences in personal and group status. Cleverly carved figurines of animals, women, and other subjects occur in many sites, and Natufian period cave paintings have been found in Anatolia, Syria, and Iran. {[3|27|A]} More than 400 Natufian burials have been found, most of them simple graves set in house floors. {[3|27|B]} As archaeologist Belfer-Cohen notes, these burials may reflect an ancestor cult and a growing sense of community emotional ties and attachment to a particular place, and toward the end of the Natufian period, people in this area were making a strict separation between living quarters and burial grounds. {[3|27|C]} In contrast with the Pleistocene cultures of the Levant, Natufian culture appears to have experienced considerable social change.{[3|27|D]}
The question of why the Natufians differed from their predecessors in these and other ways and why they made these first steps toward farming as a way of life remains unclear. There were climate changes, of course, and growing aridity and rising population densities may have forced them to intensify the exploitation of cereals, which in turn might have stimulated the development of sickles and other tools and the permanent communities that make agriculture efficient. But precisely how these factors interacted with others at play is poorly understood.


TPO52托福阅读Passage2题目


1.All of the following are mentioned in paragraph 1 as evidence that the Natufians may have engaged in the growing and processing of cereals and grains EXCEPT
tools with a specific pattern of wear
the widespread presence of grinding stones
the presence of clay containers
results from the analysis of Natufian teeth
2.Why does the author say that "many such tools show signs of long, intensive use" in connection with Natufian agriculture?
To argue that the Natufian people consumed grains long before they included fish in their diet
To suggest that Natufian people could not replace their tools frequently because they had to travel very long distances to find grinding stones
To illustrate the sophistication of the Natufians in the design of stone tools
To support the claim that the archaeological record of the Natufian period shows clear evidence of agricultural origins
3.The phrase "attest to" in the passage is closest in meaning to
symbolize
provide evidence of
are predictive of
coincide with
4.Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
Studies of the teeth of Natufians suggest the importance of cereals in their culture although they still hunted and foraged.
The Natufians specialized in collecting cereals and may have been in the process of domesticating certain animals.
Studies of the teeth of Natufians suggest that these people became hunter-foragers after they began domesticating cereals.
The Natufians’ diet consisted mostly of cereals and lacked sufficient meat.
5.Paragraph 2 suggests that compared with their predecessors, the Natufians
had smaller camps
had more permanent settlements
engaged in trade less often
had more meat in their diets
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发表于 2019-5-26 06:38:19 | 显示全部楼层
谢谢分享
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发表于 2019-5-26 11:57:28 | 显示全部楼层
找资料,这网站真好
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发表于 2019-5-26 13:17:22 | 显示全部楼层
谢谢分享,学习学习下
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发表于 2019-5-26 14:21:29 | 显示全部楼层
谢谢楼主
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发表于 2019-7-15 22:23:00 | 显示全部楼层
thank you for sharing
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发表于 2019-7-23 08:51:36 | 显示全部楼层
海港城居恐怖将映粗滤,看
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发表于 2019-8-3 11:50:24 | 显示全部楼层
谢谢谢谢谢
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发表于 2019-8-10 15:03:20 | 显示全部楼层
回复全套托福阅读真题tpo下载(原文+答案解析)
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发表于 2019-8-12 04:08:41 | 显示全部楼层
谢谢楼主
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