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[托福阅读资料] 托福TPO41阅读passage3答案解析 pdf下载

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发表于 2018-12-4 22:55:56 | 显示全部楼层
今天给大家带来了托福TPO41阅读passage3(Trade and Early State Formation)答案解析资料,希望对大家有帮助。
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主题:贸易和早期国家的形成。


  Trade and Early State Formation


  Bartering was a basic trade mechanism for many thousands of years; often sporadic and usually based on notions of reciprocity, it involved the mutual exchange of commodities or objects between individuals or groups. Redistribution of these goods through society lay in the hands of chiefs, religious leaders, or kin groups. Such redistribution was a basic element in chiefdoms. The change from redistribution to formal trade—often based on regulated commerce that perhaps involved fixed prices and even currency—was closely tied to growing political and social complexity and hence to the development of the state in the ancient world.


  In the 1970s, a number of archaeologists gave trade a primary role in the rise of ancient states. British archaeologist Colin Renfrew attributed the dramatic flowering of the Minoan civilization on Crete and through the Aegean to intensified trading contacts and to the impact of olive and vine cultivation on local communities. As agricultural economies became more diversified and local food supplies could be purchased both locally and over longer distances, a far-reaching economic interdependence resulted. Eventually, this led to redistribution systems for luxuries and basic commodities, systems that were organized and controlled by Minoan rulers from their palaces. As time went on, the self-sufficiency of communities was replaced by mutual dependence. Interest in long-distance trade brought about some cultural homogeneity from trade and gift exchange, and perhaps even led to piracy. Thus, intensified trade and interaction, and the flowering of specialist crafts, in a complex process of positive feedback, led to much more complex societies based on palaces, which were the economic hubs of a new Minoan civilization.


  Renfrew’s model made some assumptions that are now discounted. For example, he argued that the introduction of domesticated vines and olives allowed a substantial expansion of land under cultivation and helped to power the emergence of complex society. Many archaeologists and paleobotanists now question this view, pointing out that the available evidence for cultivated vines and olives suggests that they were present only in the later Bronze Age. Trade, nevertheless, was probably one of many variables that led to the emergence of palace economies in Minoan Crete.


  American archaeologist William Rathje developed a hypothesis that considered an explosion in long-distance exchange a fundamental cause of Mayan civilization in Mesoamerica. He suggested that the lowland Mayan environment was deficient in many vital resources, among them obsidian, salt, stone for grinding maize, and many luxury materials. All these could be obtained from the nearby highlands, from the Valley of Mexico, and from other regions, if the necessary trading networks came into being. Such connections, and the trading expeditions to maintain them, could not be organized by individual villages. The Maya lived in a relatively uniform environment, where every community suffered from the same resource deficiencies. Thus, argued Rathje, long-distance trade networks were organized through local ceremonial centers and their leaders. In time, this organization became a state, and knowledge of its functioning was exportable, as were pottery, tropical bird feathers, specialized stone materials, and other local commodities.


  Rathje’s hypothesis probably explains part of the complex process of Mayan state formation, but it suffers from the objection that suitable alternative raw materials can be found in the lowlands. It could be, too, that warfare became a competitive response to population growth and to the increasing scarcity of prime agricultural land, and that it played an important role in the emergence of the Mayan states.


  Now that we know much more about ancient exchange and commerce, we know that, because no one aspect of trade was an overriding cause of cultural change or evolution in commercial practices, trade can never be looked on as a unifying factor or as a primary agent of ancient civilization. Many ever-changing variables affected ancient trade, among them the demand for goods. There were also the logistics of transportation, the extent of the trading network, and the social and political environment. Intricate market networks channeled supplies along well-defined routes. Authorities at both ends might regulate the profits fed back to the source, providing the incentive for further transactions. There may or may not have been a market organization. Extensive long-distance trade was a consequence rather than a cause of complex societies.


  Paragraph 1


  Bartering was a basic trade mechanism for many thousands of years; often sporadic and usually based on notions of reciprocity, it involved the mutual exchange of commodities or objects between individuals or groups. Redistribution of these goods through society lay in the hands of chiefs, religious leaders, or kin groups. Such redistribution was a basic element in chiefdoms. The change from redistribution to formal trade—often based on regulated commerce that perhaps involved fixed prices and even currency—was closely tied to growing political and social complexity and hence to the development of the state in the ancient world.


  1. The word "notions" in the passage is closest in meaning to


  A. ideas


  B. rules


  C. degrees


  D. traditions


  2. According to paragraph 1, what development occurred as political and social complexity increased?


  A. The prices of most commodities rose.


  B. Formal trade emerged.


  C. Chiefs became more powerful


  D. Bartering became the preferred means of trade.


  Paragraph 2


  In the 1970s, a number of archaeologists gave trade a primary role in the rise of ancient states. British archaeologist Colin Renfrew attributed the dramatic flowering of the Minoan civilization on Crete and through the Aegean to intensified trading contacts and to the impact of olive and vine cultivation on local communities. As agricultural economies became more diversified and local food supplies could be purchased both locally and over longer distances, a far-reaching economic interdependence resulted. Eventually, this led to redistribution systems for luxuries and basic commodities, systems that were organized and controlled by Minoan rulers from their palaces. As time went on, the self-sufficiency of communities was replaced by mutual dependence. Interest in long-distance trade brought about some cultural homogeneity from trade and gift exchange, and perhaps even led to piracy. Thus, intensified trade and interaction, and the flowering of specialist crafts, in a complex process of positive feedback, led to much more complex societies based on palaces, which were the economic hubs of a new Minoan civilization.


  3. The word “diversified” in the passage is closest in meaning to


  A. organized


  B. selective


  C. varied


  D. efficient


  4. According to paragraph 2, which of the following controlled the systems of redistribution of goods in ancient Crete?


  A. Local community leaders


  B. Olive growers


  C. Minoan rulers


  D. Long-distance traders


  5. According to paragraph 2, Renfrew believed that one effect of long-distance trade in the Aegean was


  A. a greater effort to control piracy


  B. greater cultural similarity throughout the region


  C. a decline in local olive production


  D. a decline in the use of luxuries for gift exchanges


  Paragraph 3


  Renfrew’s model made some assumptions that are now discounted. For example, he argued that the introduction of domesticated vines and olives allowed a substantial expansion of land under cultivation and helped to power the emergence of complex society. Many archaeologists and paleobotanists now question this view, pointing out that the available evidence for cultivated vines and olives suggests that they were present only in the later Bronze Age. Trade, nevertheless, was probably one of many variables that led to the emergence of palace economies in Minoan Crete.


  6. According to paragraph 3, what was a major problem with Renfrew’s model?


  A. He overlooked the fact that only the Minoan palaces had access to domesticated vines and olives.


  B. He wrongly assumed that the introduction of domesticated vines and olives led to the cultivation of more land.


  C. Trade in domesticated plants was much more important to the emergence of Minoan palace economies than he thought.


  D. Domesticated vines and olives do not appear to have been available as early as he thought


  Paragraph 4


  American archaeologist William Rathje developed a hypothesis that considered an explosion in long-distance exchange a fundamental cause of Mayan civilization in Mesoamerica. He suggested that the lowland Mayan environment was deficient in many vital resources, among them obsidian, salt, stone for grinding maize, and many luxury materials. All these could be obtained from the nearby highlands, from the Valley of Mexico, and from other regions, if the necessary trading networks came into being. Such connections, and the trading expeditions to maintain them, could not be organized by individual villages. The Maya lived in a relatively uniform environment, where every community suffered from the same resource deficiencies. Thus, argued Rathje, long-distance trade networks were organized through local ceremonial centers and their leaders. In time, this organization became a state, and knowledge of its functioning was exportable, as were pottery, tropical bird feathers, specialized stone materials, and other local commodities.


  7. According to paragraph 4, which of the following was true about ancient Mayan communities?


  A. They each created their own separate trading networks with communities in the nearby highlands.


  B. They all had many luxury materials that they were able to trade for resources that they lacked.


  C. They all needed to obtain a number of important materials through trade with other regions.


  D. They all gradually reduced their trading activities with communities in the Valley of Mexico and developed trading networks with other regions.


  8. What can be inferred from the fact that the Maya lived in a “relatively uniform environment”?


  A. The communities could not obtain resources they lacked by trading with each other.


  B. The communities’ ceremonial centers were all organized in much the same way.


  C. Increased competition between the communities to export their local commodities expanded commercial networks beyond the nearby highlands.


  D. Different communities tended to specialize in the production of different commodities.


  Paragraph 5


  Rathje’s hypothesis probably explains part of the complex process of Mayan state formation, but it suffers from the objection that suitable alternative raw materials can be found in the lowlands. It could be, too, that warfare became a competitive response to population growth and to the increasing scarcity of prime agricultural land, and that it played an important role in the emergence of the Mayan states.


  Paragraph 4


  American archaeologist William Rathje developed a hypothesis that considered an explosion in long-distance exchange a fundamental cause of Mayan civilization in Mesoamerica. He suggested that the lowland Mayan environment was deficient in many vital resources, among them obsidian, salt, stone for grinding maize, and many luxury materials. All these could be obtained from the nearby highlands, from the Valley of Mexico, and from other regions, if the necessary trading networks came into being. Such connections, and the trading expeditions to maintain them, could not be organized by individual villages. The Maya lived in a relatively uniform environment, where every community suffered from the same resource deficiencies. Thus, argued Rathje, long-distance trade networks were organized through local ceremonial centers and their leaders. In time, this organization became a state, and knowledge of its functioning was exportable, as were pottery, tropical bird feathers, specialized stone materials, and other local commodities.


  9. The word “prime” in the passage is closest in meaning to


  A. low-lying


  B. easily accessible


  C. unused


  D. high-quality


  10. What is the role of paragraph 5 in relation to paragraph 4?


  A. It restates the hypothesis presented in paragraph 4 and reinforces it with further evidence.


  B. It presents evidence that the hypothesis discussed in paragraph 4 confuses cause and effect.


  C. It presents a critical assessment of the hypothesis presented in paragraph 4.


  D. It explains how the hypothesis discussed in paragraph 4 was initially formulated.


  Paragraph 6


  Now that we know much more about ancient exchange and commerce, we know that, because no one aspect of trade was an overriding cause of cultural change or evolution in commercial practices, trade can never be looked on as a unifying factor or as a primary agent of ancient civilization. Many ever-changing variables affected ancient trade, among them the demand for goods. There were also the logistics of transportation, the extent of the trading network, and the social and political environment. Intricate market networks channeled supplies along well-defined routes. Authorities at both ends might regulate the profits fed back to the source, providing the incentive for further transactions. There may or may not have been a market organization. Extensive long-distance trade was a consequence rather than a cause of complex societies.


  11. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.


  A. We now know that ancient trade cannot be considered a main factor in the rise of civilization, because no one aspect of it caused change in culture or commercial practices.


  B. We now know that the growth of civilization was an important factor in causing cultural change and in improving commercial practices.


  C. We now know much more about how ancient trade and commerce led to cultural changes and the evolution of commercial practices.


  D. We now know much more about the main factors and agents that led to ancient civilization, because we know what aspects of trade affected culture and commercial practices.


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